September 25, 2009

Fried Rice with Mushrooms

We love fried rice, and there are about a million things you could do to it. This is number 34,227: rice with a heavy dose of mushrooms. Originally, this recipe began life as rice pancakes, but when the pancakes refused to maintain their shape, tada! Fried rice! (This same phenomena is how my omelets mysteriously turn into scrambled eggs.) But despite the culinary catastrophe, the rice turned out darn good, and in the end much easier to make than fussy pancakes.

Fried Rice with Mushrooms


5 t olive oil, divided
5 c mushrooms, thinly sliced
½ c onion, finely chopped
½ c red bell pepper, finely chopped
1 garlic, minced
1 T fresh thyme, or 1 t dried thyme
¾ t salt
¼ t pepper
1 c vegetable broth
1 t arrowroot or cornstarch
3 c cooked brown rice


1. Heat 2 teaspoons of oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add mushrooms, onions, and bell pepper. Cook for 15 minutes or until most of the liquid has cooked off, stirring occasionally.

2. Add garlic and cook for 1 minute. Add the thyme, salt, and pepper. Remove 1 cup of the mixture and set aside.

3. Increase the heat to medium-high. Add the broth and arrowroot. Bring to a boil and cook 1 minute, stirring constantly. Set aside but keep warm.

4. In another pan, add the remaining tablespoon of oil and heat over medium-high heat. Dump in the rice and reserved mushroom mixture. Stir fry until desired doneness. Serve hot with mushroom sauce.

September 24, 2009

Exotic Ingredient: Mango Powder

Because I love Indian so much, I often find myself wandering over to Lisa's Kitchen to try some of her delicious recipes. There you will find lots of Indian-inspired vegetarian dishes, many of them spicy, and most of them wonderful. I found the following recipe there and it immediately caught my eye because (a) it has chickpeas in it (yummy), and (b) it calls for mango powder, AKA amchur powder.

Long ago, while walking down the Indian aisle of the Oriental market we often shop, I found a bottle of this mysterious blonde-colored powder. Intrigued by the thought of powdered mango, I bought some. It is made from unripe mangoes, dried and powdered. It has a unique flavor. I have used it once or twice sparingly, but this dish really piles it on. This dish is especially refreshing to me because many Indian dishes start to taste the same after awhile, and I've been in a "curry and chili with some kind of bean" rut lately. Yes, this is still technically a curry with some kind of bean, but hey, no chili!

If you are having trouble finding amchur (sometimes amchoor) powder, you can always get it from that great global marketplace called Amchur (Dry Mango) Powder 3.5oz

I only recreate Lisa's dish, not to steal her thunder, but because it was so delicious. I also made a few teensy changes. The original recipe is found here.

The part I changed was the addition of cardamom pods and a whole cinnamon stick. I'm not one to snub my nose at tradition, but I don't like putting things like this into dishes. You have to take them out, otherwise a mouthful of cinnamon bark or cardamom pod is not very pleasant. But it is also quite difficult to fish these things out of a sauce such as in this recipe. So I prefer to simply add a small amount of powdered cardamom and cinnamon instead. I also removed the onion garnish, as I can't eat raw onions and feel the flavor is perfect without it.

So here is Lisa's Chickpeas with Mango Powder, with tiny edits by yours truly.

Chickpeas with Mango Powder


1¼ c dried chickpeas
2 T olive oil
1 t cumin seeds
pinch of ground cardamom
pinch of ground cinnamon
1 t ground cumin
2 T mango powder (amchur)
1 T ground coriander
½ t of cayenne pepper
½ t turmeric
1 t salt
1 14-oz can of diced tomatoes, drained or 2 medium ripe tomatoes, finely chopped
generous handful of fresh parsley


1. Soak the chickpeas in enough water to cover overnight. Drain, and cook in a pressure cooker according to directions (about 15 minutes), or simmer in a pot of water for 1-2 hours until soft. Reserve 1 cup of the cooking liquid, drain and set the beans aside.

2. Heat the oil over medium heat in a large skillet. When hot, add the cumin seeds. Stir and fry for roughly 1 minute. Now add the ground spices, stir and pour in the tomatoes, and add the salt. Cook, uncovered, stirring often, until the tomatoes begin to thicken up (roughly 5 - 10 minutes.

3. Now add the chickpeas, the reserved cooking liquid and half of the chopped parsley. Cover the skillet partially and simmer, stirring occasionally, until the sauce is thickened (roughly 20 minutes).

4. Serve, garnished with some of the remaining parsley.

September 22, 2009

The World of Pizza

It's difficult to put an exact definition on pizza. It seems every culture has some form of food that resembles pizza. Basically, it is a flat bread crust with stuff on top. Or sometimes the stuff is inside. The ancestor of the American pizza originated in Naples.

The Neapolitan pizza is characterized by a bread crust which by itself has little flavor; it is the vehicle to get the toppings to your mouth without it falling into your lap. On top of that is a flavorful tomato sauce. This provides the bulk of the taste and moistens the entire thing so it goes down easy. A thin layer of mozzarella cheese covers the top that holds the whole thing together. And finally, sprinkled on the top is a little fresh basil. This simple recipe spread throughout Italy, each applying their own local variations. Then it spread all through Europe and East and West.

But something awful happened to the recipe on the way over to the U.S. Apparently the recipe blew overboard, and when the crew finally dredged it out of the sea, it was water-logged and practically illegible. This must be the case because the American pizza has evolved into something quite grotesque. The crust keeps getting thicker and denser. The tomato sauce is thin and lifeless. There are no herbs to speak of. Taking center stage is the thick carpet of cheese on top. Cheese is even infused into the crust. What was once a savory, tangy delight has become a thick, heavy glob of cheese and dough. This evolution has placed American pizza into the "junk food" category, which is a real shame because pure pizza is darn good food.

Over the years, I have been interested in pizzas from around the world. One pizza I really enjoy is a Moroccan pizza, also known as Marrakesh Pizza. This pizza is not easy to make, though, as the toppings are really a filling. The dough is folded with the filling inside, rolled out, folded again, and rolled out again. While this does create an interesting pizza, it's time consuming and messy. However, I love the taste of the filling.

In the following recipe, I recreate the Marrakesh filling but use it as a topping on the traditional Italian style pizza. I have been searching for a good gluten-free pizza crust, but so far the best is the one in Bette Hagman's book The Gluten Free Gourmet Bakes Bread. I present a slightly modified version of Bette's pizza crust below.

What I like in this particular pizza is the absence of a sauce. Pizza does not have to have a sauce, and many non-American pizzas I've tried do not. Here I used tomatoes fresh my garden and some rice-based cheese. As you can tell, cheese plays a very small role in this dish.

Marrakesh Pizza


pizza crust:

7/8 c brown rice flour
5/8 c tapioca flour
1½ t xanthan or guar gum
1 T sugar
3 T almond meal
½ t salt
2½ t yeast
2 egg whites, or 2 T ground flax seed + 4 T warm water
1½ T olive oil
½ t vinegar
¾ c warm water, more or less


½ onion, chopped fine
2 large tomatoes, or 4 romas
3 T parsley
½ t ground coriander
1 t paprika
1 t cumin
½ c shredded cheese
2 T olive oil


To make the pizza crust:

1. Lightly grease a cookie sheet or round pizza pan (not one with holes, the dough is too wet).

2. Blend the dry ingredients (rice flour through yeast) in a medium bowl.

3. Place wet ingredients in the bowl of your mixer and blend (reserve some of the water). With the mixer on low, add the flour mix. Add more water if needed to get a firm but spreadable dough. Beat on high for 3½ minutes.

4. Spread dough on the prepared sheet or pan, spreading in circles until 12 inches in diameter. Raise the edges slightly.

5. Let rise for about 10 minutes. Preheat oven to 400°F.

6. Bake crust for about 10 minutes. While baking, prepare the topping.

To make the topping:

1. Mix all the topping ingredients into a bowl.

2. Spread topping on top of crust and bake for an additional 20-25 minutes.

September 20, 2009

Kale with Pine Nuts

This is the end of the pine nut binge. I promise. I find that pine nuts have a somewhat strong flavor, but the earthy flavor combines quite well here with the bitter, sour, and sweet notes of the kale and cranberries.

To toast pine nuts, I have tried dry roasting in a hot pan, and sauteing in olive oil. Each method provides satisfactory results, but both must be watched carefully. There is a certain point when pine nuts brown very rapidly and then start burning. This is one task I find it hard to multitask; if I'm toasting pine nuts, everything else has to wait. I learned this the hard way after dumping numerous pans of burned up nuts.

Kale with Pine Nuts


1 bunch of kale (1½ - 2 lbs)
1 T olive oil
3 garlic cloves, minced
¼ c water
¼ c dried cranberries
pinch ground cinnamon
¼ c toasted pine nuts
¼ t salt


1. Rinse the kale and cut off stems and thick veins. Coarsely chop the leaves.

2. In a large skillet, heat the oil over medium-high heat. Add the garlic and saute for 30 seconds.

3. Add the kale, water, cranberries, cinnamon, and salt. Cover and cook over medium-high heat until the kale is tender, about 7 minutes. Add more water if the mixture gets too dry.

4. Stir in pine nuts just before serving.

September 17, 2009

Summer Rolls

I don't eat much raw food, but these little summer rolls are to die for. These were extra sweet by using home-grown carrots, freshly harvested. These are the kind of carrots that are so good and organic that you don't even have to peel them. And the fresh mint in this dish really brings it to life. This was my first experience with rice paper wrappers. Don't be intimated by them; once you get the hang of it, it is really quite easy and fun to do.

Summer Rolls


Miso Sauce:
¼ c white miso paste
2 scallions, chopped
2 T lemon juice
1 T lime juice
1 T rice wine vinegar
1 T dark sesame oil
1 T brown sugar
1/8 t chili powder
¼ c olive oil

Summer Rolls:
4 medium carrots, shredded
1 small zucchini, peeled and julienned
½ c parsley leaves
¼ c fresh mint
2 scallions, chopped
15 rice paper wrappers


1. Miso Sauce: puree all the ingredients in a food processor and chill.

2. Summer rolls: Combine carrots, zucchini, parsley, mint, and scallions in a bowl.

3. Dip 1 rice paper in warm water for 30 seconds, or until soft. Place the paper on a towel. Spoon about 2 tablespoons of the vegetables onto the bottom third of the rice paper. Roll up part way, then fold in the sides, and continue rolling. Repeat this for all rice papers. Cover and chill the rolls.

4. Serve rolls cold or room temperature with miso sauce.

September 16, 2009

How Cooking Made us Human

I have just finished reading Richard Wrangham's 2009 book Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human. This book contains aspects of anthropology and gastronomy, two of my favorite hobby subjects.

The book's premise is that cooking food has made us what we are today, and without fire, we may be still swinging around in trees. Wrangham sets in right away and discredits the popular movement of eating only raw food. Demi Moore does it, David Bowie does it, and countless others. The biggest claim from the raw-foodists is that there are enzymes in raw food that are critical for digestion, enzymes which are destroyed by heating.

Not only have these "critical enzymes" thus far eluded scientific research, but Wrangham points out numerous studies and revealing examples throughout history that the exact opposite is true: Humans cannot properly digest raw food enough to maintain good health.

The raw-foodists like to point out that a raw food diet is "natural", but they fail to understand that it is natural for apes and monkeys, but it is not natural for humans. They fail to understand that the human body has evolved and adapted to a cooked food diet. Everything about our eating system-- our small mouth and lips, small teeth, small jaw muscles, small stomach, short digestion cycles, and short intestines -are all at a huge disadvantage for processing raw food, but which handles cooked food very well.

Another interesting point that Wrangham makes is that the human body supplies at least 20% of its energy to fuel our brains. This is far more than any other animal. Like a supercomputer, it takes a lot of juice to keep all that intelligence going. This energy demand calls for a well-tuned and sophisticated digestion system and diet.

Which brings us to the Expensive Tissue Theory. This theory states that either the digestive system or the brain are the big consumers of energy, but not both. Animals with larger digestive systems (which require more energy to operate) tend to have smaller brains. When looking at all the primates, the size of the brain is inversely proportional to the size the digestive system. For primates like gorillas, they have a lengthy and energy-consuming digestive system. For humans, we have a power-hungry brain, but a small digestive system. This system is adapted to eating cooked foods where nutrients are readily available with considerably less effort to digest.

Wrangham points to two periods in human evolution when our brains increased dramatically in size and theorizes, based on the Expensive Tissue idea, that a change in diet caused each increase. The first time was a transition from Australopithecines to Homo erectus 2 million years ago. This brain size increase is attributed to an increase of meat in the diet. The second large increase in brain size was from Homo erectus to Homo heidelbergensis roughly 500,000 years ago. This has been attributed to cooking food.

Wrangham also discusses hunter-gatherer societies and some of the earliest "human" behaviors exhibited by our ancestors. While gorillas and chimpanzees spend nearly half their waking day chewing raw food, eating cooked food allowed men to spend more time hunting, which brought more meat into their diet. Fire and cooking made this type of society work and developed what we now call family units. Cooking is, in essence, the cornerstone of humanity.

So next time you are in the kitchen cooking, realize that you are participating in one of the earliest human industries, one that advanced our species beyond our raw-food chewing cousins, and it is a very human thing to do.

September 15, 2009

America's Sugar Addiction

Jonny Bowden has an interesting article on, The Healthiest Foods On Earth, which has this great quote:

All these healthy diets have in common the fact that they are absent foods with bar codes. They are also extremely low in sugar. In fact, the number of modern or ancient societies known for health and longevity that have consumed a diet high in sugar would be ... let's see ... zero.

Just recently the American Heart Association is now advising that Americans eat way too much sugar and we need to cut back. We eat 22 teaspoons a day. Fructose is unhealthy in many ways; it damages your liver and kidneys, puts on lots of unwanted weight, causes acne and tooth decay, etc.

From an evolutionary point of view, Dr. Miller in the Jungle Effect says that humans have a natural affinity towards sweet things as a way to encourage us to eat more fruits. Back before the wide availability of sugar, fruit and honey was our only source of sweetness. And fruit and honey can offer so much more to our bodies, whereas pure sugar offers nothing nutritionally.

One thing I have noticed in my label reading of various packaged foods is that sugar is in most everything, even things that you wouldn't expect: items like soy sauce and salad dressings. The fact of the matter is that America is addicted to sugar. Food manufacturers have to put it in the food they create, otherwise people won't eat it. It is just like the tobacco companies lacing their cigarettes with nicotine to get smokers hooked on their brand.

Ever since I cut back on sugar and eliminated High Fructose Corn Syrup completely, my taste buds have reawakened. I notice more subtle flavors in my food that before were hidden from my deadened taste buds. And now when I happen to taste some super-sweet food, I find it disgusting.

When I follow recipes, I am as much aware of the sugar content as I am when reading food labels. I present a recipe below from Living Without, a magazine that caters to those with various food allergies such as gluten. While this is a great service to people who cannot eat "normal" food, I notice that this magazine also caves in to the American addiction to sugar. Its recipes are heavily laden with sugar, especially its desserts. 

The modified recipe below originally called for 1 2/3 cups of brown sugar. One and two-thirds cups!! And, there was 4 tablespoons of maple syrup, a sneaky way to disguise an additional ¼ cup of sugar. And there were raisins in it, one of the most sweet fruits you can get naturally.

This is simply way too much sweetness. Nobody should eat food this sweet. We are not hummingbirds! So I cut the sugar nearly in half. The amount of oil was also a bit high: 2/3 cup, so I cut this in half as well. The result? I still find it a bit too sweet, but it has promise. This snack bar also suffers from what most gluten-free items suffer: it is crumbly. Using real eggs might help this, but I tend to use flax seed "eggs". I welcome any suggestions on how to make gluten-free breads more cohesive.

In future versions, I will try cutting back the sugar even more, adding nuts and/or seeds, and try to make less crumbly.

Gluten-Free Snack Bars


1⅓ c rolled oats
1 c sorghum flour
¾ c rice flour
½ c tapioca flour
1½ t xanthan gum
½ t salt
1½ t baking powder
1½ t cinnamon
1 c brown sugar, not packed

⅓ c canola oil or other vegetable oil
2 eggs, or flax seed "eggs"
2 T maple syrup
2 t vanilla extract

⅔ c dried cranberries, soaked in warm water
dried coconut flakes


1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Lightly grease a 9x13-inch baking pan.

2. In large bowl, combine dry ingredients.

3. In medium bowl, combine vegetable oil, eggs, maple syrup and vanilla.

4. Add wet ingredients to dry mixture and mix with a fork or wooden spoon until blended.

5. Drain cranberries, reserving ¼ cup liquid. Fold cranberries into batter. Add reserved liquid, a little at a time until batter is smooth. Batter will be thick.

6. Spread batter into prepared baking pan. Sprinkle coconut flakes on top. Bake in preheated oven 20 to 25 minutes until golden.

7. Cool on wire rack. Cut into bars or squares. Store in the refrigerator.

September 10, 2009

Brown Rice Porridge

Lately I have been trying to avoid processed cereals. For years I have eschewed the super-sugar bombs put out by General Mills, Kelloggs, and the like, but now I am also staying away from the "healthier" cereals simply because they are still a processed food and cost a lot of money. This leaves a gaping hole in my breakfast routine that I am filling with more hot, whole grains. Oatmeal is a good example, but I also enjoy grits and buckwheat. Rice is a very common breakfast food in the Orient (it is a common food in every meal!), so it is slowly working its way into my regimen.

This recipe shows one way you could enjoy rice for breakfast. It needs to be prepared the night before, but it is super easy. By the time you get to the kitchen the next morning, you will be greeted by a hot pot of yummy rice porridge. You could literally put anything in this you want; this is just a starter recipe to get you going.

Brown Rice Porridge


1 c brown rice
3 T honey, maple syrup, or brown sugar
1 T unsalted butter
1/2 t salt
1/2 t cinnamon
1 apple, unpeeled and finely chopped
1/2 c dried cranberries
1/2 c walnuts or almonds, chopped
4 c water


1. Spray a crock pot with oil. Place all ingredients in cooker and mix well.

2. Cover and cook on low 8 hours. Stir before serving.

September 7, 2009

Bulgur and Pine Nut Pilaf

I've been on a pine nut kick this past week (even made cookies out of them), and here is another use for pine nuts. This is a take on rice pilaf and is popular in Syria, Jordan, and Turkey. Wheat bulgur is a form of whole wheat that has been cleaned, parboiled, dried, ground into particles and sifted into distinct sizes. It cooks fairly quickly and does not call for a pressure cooker. It is one of many grains I like to keep on hand, but it is NOT gluten-free.

Bulgur and Pine Nut Pilaf


2 T olive oil
1 onion, choped
1 garlic clove, minced
1 t turmeric
½ t cinnamon
1 gren chili, seeded and finely chopped
2 c vegetable broth
2/3 c white wine
1 1/3 c bulgur wheat, rinsed and drained
1 T olive oil
3 T pine nuts
2 T parsley


1. Heat the oil in a large skillet and fry the onion until soft. Add the garlic, turmeric, cinnamon, and chili. Fry for another minute.

2. Add the broth and wine, bring to a boil, and simmer for 8 minutes.

3. Add the bulgur, cover, and simmer gently for 15 minutes.

4. Meanwhile, heat the 1 tablespoon of olive oil in a small skillet and add the pine nuts. Fry until the nuts are golden, about a minute. Add the pine nuts and parsley to the bulgur and stir.

September 6, 2009

Pine Nut Rosemary Cookies

You may never think pine nuts and rosemary ever belong in a cookie, nor olive oil. But this recipe has all three and the cookies are delicious. Unlike the typical "sugar-flavored" cookie, these are savory and go well with a hot cup of tea. I have adapted it to be egg-free and gluten-free. You can use your favorite gluten free flour blend, but I find the rice flour-based blends do better for this recipe. If you don't have your own blend on hand, you can use the mix described below.

Pine Nut Rosemary Cookies


3 t dried rosemary
¼ c pine nuts, toasted
2¼ c gluten-free flour (see below)
1 t baking powder
½ t ground ginger
¼ t salt
8 T unsalted butter (one stick), softened
1 c sugar
2 T olive oil
2 T heavy cream (or coconut milk)
1 egg, or flax seed "egg"

Gluten-free flour blend:

1¼ c brown rice flour
1 c tapioca flour
2 t sugar
2 t xanthan gum


1. Preheat oven to 325ยบ. Spray two cookie sheets with oil.

2. Grind the pine nuts in a small food processor or coffee grinder. Add the rosemary and finely chop. Transfer to a large bowl.

3. Stir in the flour, baking powder, ginger, and salt. Set aside.

4. Put butter and sugar into the bowl of an electric mixer. Mix on high speed until pale and fluffy. Mix in oil. Reduce speed to low and mix in flour mixture. Add cream (or coconut milk) and mix until well combined. Add "egg".

5. Shape dough into ¾-inch balls and place 2 inches apart on cookie sheets. Flatten each cookie slightly with your fingers.

6. Bake for about 13-15 minutes, until cookies are lightly golden. They will not get very dark. Turn the sheets halfway to ensure even cooking. Let cool 10 minutes on the cookie sheets before removing to cooling racks.

September 2, 2009

Curried Chickpea Dumplings

I almost hesitate to post this recipe. I found the original on the site while looking for kala chana recipes. This one popped up with the title "Kala Chana Ghoomni", despite having no kala chana in it. (Kala chana is a black chickpea.) I fear the title of the recipe was a copy-n-paste error. Unfortunately, this wrong-titled recipe has been replicated across the web at other sites. Not only the title is wrong, but the recipe is in a bit of a mess. The amounts of some ingredients are very vague, some ingredients just plain missing, and the order was completely random. So I fixed all that up.

Although I don't know what the real title of this dish is, it is quite yummy and different. The highlight are the little "dumplings" made out of chickpea flour. According to the original recipe, these are called "gatte".

You mix the dough and roll it into a large cigar and it will look something like this: (Try not to giggle as you roll this out!)

Then you boil the whole thing in water. When it is done, you cut it up into bite-size pieces. I don't know what you're supposed to do, I cut them into thick coins . The original recipe is not too clear. I ended up with dumplings like this:

I think next time I will also stir fry them a little after boiling, just to give them better texture. Otherwise, they are quite soft and almost gummy.

The sauce is pretty basic but full of flavor. This dish then can be served with rice or flat bread.

Curried Chickpea Dumplings



7/8 c besan (chickpea flour)
2 green chilis, finely chopped
1 T oil
2 T water
½ T carom (ajwain) seed
1/2 t red chili powder


1 T oil
A pinch asafoetida
1 T cumin seed
2 green chilis, finely chopped
1 T ginger, grated
1 T garlic, minced
½ T prepared mustard
1 large onion, finely chopped
3 medium size tomatoes, finely chopped
½ T turmeric powder
½ t red chili powder
1 t coriander powder
½ t salt
1 t garam masala
1 c water


For the dumplings:

1. In a medium bowl, mix the besan, 2 green chillies, carom, red chili powder and 1 T oil. Add just enough water to make a dough, about 2 tablespoons.

2. Roll the dough into a 1/2-inch thick cylinder, about 5-6 inches long.

3. Put the cylinder into boiling water and boil for 10 minutes. Take out the water and cut the cylinder into 1/4-inch thick coins and keep aside.

For the sauce:

1. Heat oil, add asafoetida, cumin seeds, 2 green chilies, and stir-fry till well browned.

2. Add the ginger and garlic and mustard. Heat for 1 minute. Add onion and heat for 3 minutes. Add chopped tomatoes and heat for 2 minutes. Add turmeric powder, red chili powder, coriander powder, salt, garam masala and water and boil for 7 minutes.

3. Put dumplings into the sauce and boil for 3 minutes (Heat until gravy is thick).

4. Serve hot with steamed rice or flat bread.

September 1, 2009

Garlic Tofu with Tomato and Basil

The beginnings of this dish came from an issue of Cooking Light. But it's main ingredient was pork and I have made significant changes to the recipe. The end result has a bit more depth than a lot of the simple dishes I create, but it still tastes delicious.

Garlic Tofu with Tomato and Basil


1 pkg firm tofu, drained and pressed in a towel
1 T olive oil
3 T cold water
2 T Worcestershire sauce
1 t sugar
1 t chili oil
1 t arrowroot
1 T garlic, minced
2 c plum tomatoes, seeded and chopped
¾ c fresh basil, chopped
¼ c green onions, chopped


1. Cut the tofu into cubes. Stir fry tofu in hot olive oil in a large skillet until browned.

2. In a small bowl, combine water, Worcestershire sauce, sugar, chili oil, and arrowroot.

3. When the tofu is done, add the garlic and saute another minute. Add tomatoes and saute 1 minute. Add the arrowroot mixture and cook until thickened and bubbly.

4. Add basil and stir to combine. Remove from heat and sprinkle with green onions. Serve over rice.